Beyonce, Music Videos, and Female Sexuality

Beyonce has become a spokeswoman of feminism, including quotes from feminist writer Chimamanda Ngozi Adichie in one of her latest tracks and having the word “Feminist” displayed behind her while performing at the VMAs.

For feminists like me, this is wonderful to see.  The majority of women benefit greatly from the efforts of early and current feminists, but few women (especially female celebrities) publicly embrace the term the way Beyonce has.  I hope that the promotion of the term and the movement by someone as adored as Beyonce will help shift the public’s perception.

When I heard of Beyonce’s song “Pretty Hurts”, and the accompanying music video, I eagerly anticipated its release.  The song is about the very painful and exhausting process many women dedicate their lives to in order to be considered “pretty”.  The music video features Beyonce competing in a beauty pageant.  We see her and the other women engaging in various routines including getting spray tans, working out, kneeling in front of the toilet, and ingesting non-food substances in order to fill up their stomachs, all while her song plays.  Half-way through the video, all the women are on stage and the pageant MC asks Beyonce what her goals are in life.  She thinks for a while, admits she wasn’t ready for that question, and then answers “My goal is to be happy”.  Shortly after that scene, we see her standing in front of her various trophies.  She grabs one and smashes the others with it.  The last scene of the video actually seems to be taken from a home video of Beyonce’s.  The scene is of her as a little girl, giving her very brief acceptance speech after winning a pageant. 

The video is undeniably powerful, yet I still felt like I wanted more.  The ending felt somehow unsatisfying.  In reading an interview with Beyonce about the video, I realized why.  She described the video as being about “inner beauty and substance. […] That song represents finding that one thing in the world that makes you really happy.”  I realized that’s what was missing from the video.  We see Beyonce as a heartbroken, angry pageant contestant, but we never see her happy.  We never see her as herself.  We never see her, or any of the other women, outside of the context of the pageant.  In her video, Beyonce is vividly illustrating a very dark problem deeply enmeshed in our culture, and I would have loved to see her create just as vivid an image of her character healing and “finding that one thing that makes [her] really happy”. 

As I recently watched Beyonce’s VMA performance, one of Chimamanda’s quotes struck me: “We teach girls that they cannot be sexual beings in the way that boys are”.  I understood why Beyonce included it in her audio track as she danced onstage.  Beyonce is known for her beautiful and provocative style of dance and costuming.  When I heard that quote, I realized that Beyonce sees her very sexual style as an expression of her feminism.  Yet, to me, her performance still felt sexually objectifying instead of empowering.  What is the difference?  Can a female performer express her sexuality without objectifying herself?

I watched some of Beyonce’s more recent music videos, and started to realize what felt so off to me.  They felt objectifying because we were mostly in the place of “watcher” while she was mostly in the place of “beautiful sexy object”.  She made flirtatious eyes at the camera almost constantly.  She contorted her body to present certain parts of it to the camera.  Her dance moves always felt choreographed instead of internally inspired.  Her movements seemed to be motivated by what the viewer would want to see, not how her body wanted to move at that precise moment.  Her flirtatious eyes felt like a way to draw the viewer in and keep us watching, not how her natural expression would be if she were singing the song.  It felt like she was using her body as an interesting prop to help keep viewers engaged in the video.  It felt like every movement had the intention of satisfying our eyes instead of her body. 

In a culture where everyone grows up learning that female bodies belong to those who see them, it’s difficult for women to feel connected to their bodies.  We quickly learn that our sexuality is only acceptable if it appeals to the male gaze.  Even when we just want to move our bodies to music, we are expected to do so in a visually pleasing (and preferably also titillating) way.  Most of us internalize these messages at such a young age that it soon becomes difficult to untangle our own sexuality from the way we are expected to be sexual.  It becomes difficult to quiet the external messages that have seeped into our own thoughts and just move our bodies the way they truly want to move. 

There are a few music videos where I feel the artists express their sexuality in an empowering way.  The first is Mod Carousel’s “genderf*ck” cover of the well-known track “Blurred Lines”:

The video has a distinctly groovy feel to it, as if the track started playing and all the performers just danced along to it.  Even the men, wearing nothing but glittering thongs and heels, dance in a way that is empowered, genuine, and flirtatious.  They have a full range of facial expressions, instead of only sultry stares into the camera.  The women have the same broad range in their expressions and movements.  This multidimensionality helps give their characters life, instead of flattening the characters into visually consumable objects. 

A much darker, more emotionally intense example is P!nk’s video for her song “Try”:

The interactions between P!nk and Colt are incredibly sensual.  Their entire routine is obviously carefully choreographed but it still somehow feels organic.  We see a lot of P!nk’s body, but no part of it is ever “presented to the camera”.  P!nk is physically, mentally, and emotionally engaged with Colt.  At no point does she even present her body to him.  They are two people fully interacting with each other, no one ever falling into the role of “object”. 

A lighter, more bubbly example is Meghan Trainor’s “All About That Bass” music video:

It’s very flirtatious, with lots of great dancing.  Again, despite the clearly choreographed routines the dancers all look like they’re moving the way their bodies want to move at that moment.  The dancers’ personalities shine out of their faces and gestures.  Even Meghan’s glances into the camera are not “Do you find me sexy?” but more “Come join our dance party and enjoy your body like we’re enjoying our bodies!”

As feminism becomes even more of a hot topic, thanks to many people (including Beyonce), I hope to see more music videos that feature multidimensional female characters.  I want to see music videos become another medium where female artists can fully express themselves.  I want to see more empowered female sexuality.  I want to see women following their own bodies.  I want to see the “subject/object” dynamic gone from interpersonal relationships and media, replaced by “person/person”. 


Movie Night: Legally Blonde

When I first saw Legally Blonde, back in 2005, it instantly became my favorite movie.  Elle Woods was bubbly, sweet, intelligent, caring, hard-working, determined, passionate, and I adored her.  While recently re-watching the film, I recognized a lot of feminist aspects within the storyline and character development.  Honestly, I’m surprised that the film hasn’t gotten more recognition for being the uniquely feminist film that it is.  So, here are my top 6 reasons that Legally Blonde rocks as a feminist film (Warning: spoilers!):

1. Elle Woods gets into (and graduates from) Harvard Law School

After deciding she wants to attend Harvard Law, Elle studies extremely hard and gets several points above the minimum LSAT score for acceptance to Harvard.  While at Harvard, she works diligently to pass her classes and get an extremely prestigious internship.  She excels in a field that is dominated by men.  She’s an intelligent and hard-working woman, which is part of what makes her a great female character.


2. Elle Woods survives a bad breakup, and moves on

How often do we see a female character in an off-again on-again relationship?  How often do we see one passionate kiss in the rain negate all the of guy’s previous obnoxious behaviors and comments because He Really Did Love Her All Along and They Really Are Meant To Be Together?

And then how often do we see a woman go through all her emotions of missing him and then realize what a jerk he actually was and how much better off she is without him?  Not often, especially if she’s the dumpee.  And when she does move on, it’s almost always directly into the arms of another man.  But Elle is better than that.  She absolutely goes through a long grieving process post-breakup, and what inspires her to attend Harvard is actually the thought of winning back her now ex, but soon she realizes that he’ll never appreciate her.  No matter how amazing she is, he’ll never see it.  And then she decides to kick ass at Harvard, for no one else but herself.


3. Elle Woods struggles.  A lot.  And then she kicks ass again.

Throughout her journey at Harvard, Elle gets judged, underestimated, and ridiculed.  She leaves one of her classes close to tears on the first day.  But she goes back to it, works hard, and excels.  During the internship, her supervisor hits on her, which causes her to question why he gave her the internship in the first place.  Each of these experiences cause her to doubt herself and her abilities, just as they would affect us if we experienced them.  She’s not an eternally stoic fighter made of steel and kevlar.  She’s a human being with insecurities and fears like everyone else.  And we see her experience all these emotions, and then decide to go back and continue working hard.  Like many women in male-dominated fields, Elle experiences a lot of sexism.  Other characters view her as stupid, vain, gullible, bitchy, and/or just someone to sleep with.  They assume she got the internship because of her looks instead of her grades.  Although these judgements affect her, she doesn’t let them stop her.


4. Elle Woods becomes close friends with a woman she had previously hated

Elle’s original plan at Harvard was to win her ex back.  So when she discovers that over the summer he had gotten engaged to Vivian Kensington (played by Selma Blair), Elle instantly sees Vivian as a nemesis.  However, after a period of animosity, Elle and Vivian eventually start chatting openly to each other about the sexism they experience during the internship.  Soon, they become close friends.  This is a great dynamic that’s rarely incorporated into movies or TV shows.  The female antagonist tends to stay the female antagonist until she’s defeated by the protagonist’s superior intelligence.  They rarely join forces and support each other.  This development also shows Elle’s character as fallible.  Although she’s the protagonist, she’s capable of unfairly judging others too.  We get to see her mature, outgrowing those judgements and forming new friendships.


5. Without getting caught in a love triangle, Elle Woods finds love again

Elle does end up with Emmett Richmond, a TA from one of her classes, but it’s not a really big part of the plot.  The movie, as is Elle’s college life, is all about Harvard and winning the case in the internship.  Her romantic relationship develops naturally and without drama, as she and Emmett gradually get to know each other.


6. Elle Woods completely defies the “boring bitchy barbie” stereotype

Unfortunately we still live in a culture that defines women based on their appearance.  In popular media, women who are well put together and attractive are also bitchy and selfish.  Women who are optimistic and bubbly are also stupid and clueless.  Women who enjoy shopping and manicures are also vapid and boring.  Women who look forward to marriage have no other goals in life.

But in Legally Blonde, Elle Woods defies all these stereotypes.  She’s kind and compassionate, and she rarely criticizes anyone.  She’s actually incredibly supportive of every other woman she meets, regardless of their social status, age, and appearance.  She helps her manicurist get her precious dog back from her ex, she fiercely defends an innocent woman charged with murder, and she supports Vivian in dealing with an incredibly sexist supervisor.  As for being “stupid”, Elle graduates summa cum laude from Harvard.  And while her new boyfriend will soon become her husband, she’s also looking forward to “being a partner at a law firm by the time [she’s] 30.”  Elle Woods is a multidimensional character with many interests.  Her enjoyment of colorful stylish clothes and pampering activities do not detract from her personality or humanity.  Her girlishness does not detract from her intelligence.  Just like women in real life, her unique qualities compliment each other and become her strengths.

Lily Allen, P!nk, and Satire

There’s been a lot of buzz lately about Lily Allen’s music video for her song “Hard Out Here”.  While I think it’s a good start for satire, I was disappointed by its (unintentional) racism.  I’d like to compare it to another feminist satire, P!nk’s music video for “Stupid Girls”.

(Disclaimer: I am a fan of both Lily Allen and P!nk.  My intention is only to analyze each of these videos from a feminist perspective, NOT debate who’s a better artist.  I think both women are great, and in general we need more support for female performers.)

In case you haven’t seen it, here’s Lily Allen’s “Hard Out Here”:

The video has a lot of great scenes.  The opening is a perfect example of men judging and manipulating women’s bodies.  Her manager showing her how to seductively eat a banana, and later instructing her on how to clean a hubcap, is hilariously ridiculous and spot-on.  Lily’s balloon scene spoofs the horribly sexist Blurred Lines video.  The lyrics of “Don’t you want to have somebody who objectifies you?” and “We’ve never had it so good, we’re out of the woods” are perfect commentaries on the faux-empowerment that permeates our culture.

However, one of the first things I noticed about the video is that all the scenes that are over-the-top ridiculous feature Lily Allen.  All the scenes that exclusively or primarily feature black dancers could be taken from any popular music video.  I think this is at the heart of the criticisms against the video. Given what music videos show nowadays, there was nothing truly satirical about the dancers’ scenes.  Even when Lily joined the dancers she didn’t really dance with them, she’s more clothed than they are, and most of the shots from these scenes are just closeups of the dancers’ butts (noticeably excluding Lily’s butt).  The dancers are still being objectified, and this is what gives the video a both racist and sexist edge.  I understand that Lily felt she couldn’t twerk and was self-conscious of her body so she wore more clothes, but I think that could have been a great opportunity to make those scenes truly satirical.  Closeups of her butt dancing badly would have been much more effective as satire than the closeups included in the video.  She also could have played off of her self-consciousness, possibly by showing her “manager” pressuring her to dress in tiny outfits.  She could have shown footage of the everyday sexism encountered by her and her dancers.  For example, to really illustrate her lyrics of “It’s hard out here for a b*tch”, she could have shown her incredibly skilled dancers going to auditions where their bodies get judged for not being a certain size and their talents get ignored.  I really respect and applaud Lily’s intentions for the video, I just feel that it could have been a lot better.  That said, Lily does deserve serious props for creating a song and video that shines a light on our culture’s sexism.  One of the main purposes of satire is to spark discussion, and at this Lily has clearly succeeded.

Now let’s look at P!nk’s “Stupid Girls”:

It’s fully satirical the whole way through.  P!nk is the one who becomes various versions of a “stupid girl”, so the only performer making a fool of themselves is her.  This is significantly different from Lily’s video, where Lily has the highest status of all the women.  P!nk also clearly exaggerates each character to an extreme.  There isn’t a single scene in P!nk’s video that could be part of a typical music video, because she looks so ridiculous.  Even in the scenes at 00:31 and 03:07, where her character is a dancer in a rap video, she’s purposely dancing awkwardly.  There are no closeups of anywhere on her body except for one scene at 02:57.  She’s a “gym bunny” whose pants get caught in her treadmill and fall off to reveal her underwear, which has “Say No To Food” printed on the back.  This one, brief, closeup of her butt allows the viewer to read this, and experience one more satirical poke at our culture’s obsession with thinness.  P!nk doesn’t use anyone else’s body to prove her point, and she uses many many different examples to show the tragic and ridiculous stereotypes women in our culture are expected to emulate.

I also like that P!nk shows, and mentions, the kind of women she wants to see more of: “Outcasts and girls with ambition, that’s what I want to see” is the lyric that plays as P!nk is shown first scoring in football, then giving a presidential speech.  At the end of the video, the young girl who has the choice of barbies and dollhouses or instruments and sports decides to grab a football and run outside.  Making fun of what doesn’t work is great, but I really appreciate P!nk also showing examples of the solution.

What do you think of each video?

Amazing Women From History, Disney-ified

Artist David Trumble recently released a collection of drawings of famous women from history.  The images are highly stylized, mimicking the aesthetic of Disney princesses.  The project, which Trumble refers to as “a prototype for Disney’s new ‘World of Women’ collection”, seems to be a satirical response to Princess Merida’s makeover:


Trumble’s models include Ruth Bader Ginsberg, Hillary Clinton, Rosa Parks, Susan B. Anthony, Anne Frank, Malala Yousafzai, Harriet Tubman, Jane Goodall, Marie Curie, and Gloria Steinem:








These images show how insulting the real Disney princess images are to women and girls.  Trumble includes photos of the real women next to his drawings, so we can see the discrepancies between the women’s strong, confident body language and the coy “on display” poses of the illustrations.  All these women have accomplished incredible feats and committed their lives to amazing causes.  Instead of capturing their power and unique traits, the Disney-style illustrations reduce the women’s images into flat “Look at me – aren’t I pretty?” cartoons with vacuous smiles.  For years I’ve been aware of how unrealistic Disney princess images are, but this project really drives home how ridiculous they are.  Girls deserve to see princesses and warriors who look and move and act like real women.

A more positive aspect of this project is the notion of making women from history the new Disney princesses.  Although I don’t expect Disney to change their stories or character designs anytime soon, hopefully the discussions fueled by Trumble’s work will inspire more children’s authors and illustrators to both create realistic portrayals of women and tell stories from women’s history.

Finally, this project made me think about what kind of images I’d like to see in children’s media, and if I’d ever seen them before.  I remembered one of my favorite books, The Serpent Slayer: and Other Stories of Strong Women – the stories are folklore from around the world, featuring heroines who use their intelligence and strength to succeed.  The illustrations show characters who have strong bodies and real facial expressions:





What do you think of Trumble’s project?  And do you have any favorite storybooks that feature strong heroines?

Movie Night: Here Comes The Boom


In Here Comes The Boom Kevin James plays Scott Voss, a high school biology teacher who starts competing in MMA fighting in order to win enough money to save the music program at his school.  It’s a sweet family movie with some violence (the fight scenes are very realistic).  Although the film is simple and predictable, Scott Voss’s character is extremely unique for Hollywood.

He has many traditionally masculine traits and could be considered a “man’s man”.  He’s got a laid-back attitude, a motorcycle, and he’s training to be an MMA fighter.  He also deeply cares about his students.  Training for MMA fighting rekindles his passion for life and teaching.  Becoming a better teacher is a highly significant part of Voss’s evolution in becoming the champion he is by the end of the film.  We very rarely see this in Hollywood productions.  Throughout their story arcs, most male characters only care about themselves and their immediate families.  Female characters (and the occasional grandfatherly character past his prime) are the ones with the altruistic drive to improve schools, save arts programs, and instill a passion for learning in future generations.

There’s a victorious moment in the film, where Voss jumps on his desk and excitedly explains how cells interact.  The soundtrack music swells and Voss’s love interest, Bella Flores, notices him through the classroom door window.  This moment is one of my favorite movie moments because it shows genuine enthusiasm as something cool.  When Voss allows his natural enthusiasm to flourish, he becomes more himself and by extension more cool.  This is also when Bella starts considering him attractive; Voss’s enthusiasm makes him sexy.  His passion for education, and life in general, makes him more of a man not less.  I’d love to see this new definition of manliness reflected in the male protagonists of more films and shows.

Who are some of your favorite male characters?

Why Alexandra Eames Is The Actual Best

For most female characters in movies and television, work is not a source of fulfillment.  Work is either a potentially fun way to get money and meet a man, or an all-consuming source of stress that transforms women into miserable loners with no sense of humor.  Work itself is rarely a source of joy.

Of the women who do enjoy their work, most have jobs that involve severe violence (Buffy, Linda Hamilton, Lisbeth Salander, etc).  The satisfaction they get is actually from exacting revenge or fulfilling a preset destiny.  In either of these setups, the female character is reacting to an external event.  Regardless of her BAMF-ness in handling her fate, she’s not initiating her life’s journey.  I want to see stories where the female protagonist is pursuing a life path that she decides she wants for herself, regardless of external influences.  Her motivation should be coming from an internal sense of what she wants in life, instead of being a byproduct of an unfortunate experience.

Enter Detective Alexandra Eames, of Law & Order: Criminal Intent.


Like most Law & Order detectives, Eames is intelligent, perceptive, and intimidating when she needs to be.  Her attitude is naturally no-nonsense, and she always has a vibe of personal contentment.  True to Law & Order style, she only uses physical force when it’s absolutely necessary.  She’s a detective because she enjoys solving crimes and protecting her community, not because she needs to right some wrong that was committed against her or her family.  She enjoys the company of her partner, Detective Gorem, and they have a supportive (and never romantic) relationship.  This is also very rare for TV, as most professional partners either end up married or spend their entire careers cheekily flirting with each other.  Eames and Gorem are just colleagues with a good friendship who work together to solve difficult crimes.  And that is why Eames is one of the best female characters of all time.

Who are some of your favorite characters?